How to Grow Cannabis Plant at Home

Grow Cannabis Plant at Home

It is now possible to grow cannabis plants at home in specific states. For individuals fortunate enough to live in one of these places, they are free to experiment and grow a small crop.

Those who have tried it say it is challenging yet rewarding. They also say it gives them a greater appreciation of the cannabis plant. This guide is designed to help you grow a single plant for fun.

Please make sure you live in a place where it is legal to cultivate cannabis before you begin. Also, check out these easy to grow marijuana strains. We recommend choosing one of them before beginning your adventure.

You have the option of purchasing seeds or using a clone. The latter is more expensive but makes the process easier. However, it also takes away the fun of growing a seedling.

Here’s an overview of what to expect:

  • Germinating the Seed
  • Preparing the Soil
  • Lighting
  • Harvesting
  • Drying
  • Curing
Grow Cannabis Plant at Home

While you may want to see a sea of large marijuana colas in major cannabis grow operation, it might not be feasible. Some cannabis growers cannot afford the expense of manning a grow operation. They may not have the space either. Even with the legal changes of growing marijuana in certain states, some people may not want to risk growing it inside their home or in a community of nosy neighbors. In many cases, a large cannabis grow room is not necessary, if all you want is to supply your own personal needs.

The Beginner 

With that being said, even though, you are a beginner, you can learn how to grow one cannabis plant inside your home. You don’t have to obtain a low yield. However, you have to know how to grow your marijuana plant. The Cannabis Training University offers courses that will give you the step by step instructions on how to grow and harvest your cannabis plant for legal recreational use. You can begin with high quality marijuana seeds. You don’t need a bag of seeds. Let’s get into some of the specifics.

Growing Your Cannabis Plant Inside Your Home

You should first get rid of all the fear about this being difficult to do because it certainly is not. This is why it is called weed. It is easy to grow anywhere like the normal grass weed. One thing is central to pot growing, though. Not everyone understands the specifics and the nature of the plant. Marijuana is a flowering plant. This means that it naturally grows once per year during shorter daylight season. It is important to keep everything simply and not over analyze. You need the right soil, seeds and nutrients to start.

First Step in Growing Cannabis

The first step is to germinate the seeds of the marijuana plant once you have all your supplies and you are using the simplified method to growing your plant. Some people would just put the seed inside the soil and hope for the best. However, that is not such a good idea, if you want good results. To learn how to do this, enroll in the “Growing Cannabis” course at the Cannabis Training University. The soil has to be moist and maintain a temperature of 75 degrees. With quality cannabis seeds, you should see a new spout of marijuana plant in about a week. However, it depends on the cannabis strain.

Second Step when Growing Marijuana

This is the vegetative phase where leaves and branches are added to support the structure of the cannabis buds that will come later. The longer your cannabis plant stays in the vegetative stage, the larger it will become and have some huge buds. How long should you keep your plant in the vegetative stage? Well, it depends on the amount of space that you are working with. If you are looking for a small grow of one cannabis plant, it is recommended that you let it stay in the vegetative stage for no more than a month. Some cannabis growers can obtain larger yields within three weeks by using a sophisticated training method known as scrOGing or stress training. You can learn about this at the Cannabis Training University. It is pretty much filling up the space that you are working with and not having any wasted light or space.

Third Step When Growing Weed

The flowering stage is the third step. A cannabis plant starts to flower, depending on the light cycle. You have to use 12 hours of darkness and 12 hours of light. Controlling your light cycles must be done in order to get the best results. You can use a timer to assist you. One more important thing is to use the right lighting. To learn much more about how to get this done and successfully reap your own cannabis plant, visit the Cannabis Training University.

How to Grow Just One Indoor Cannabis Plant

Grow Cannabis Plant at Home

You may be wondering, “Why on earth would anyone want to grow just one cannabis plant?” Well, if you think about it, you’ll find a bunch of reasons why some folks might want to grow just one plant, such as:

  • Space limitations and time constraints: You’ll be able to grow a one-plant garden in a spare corner or closet with a relatively small time commitment.
  • Reduced cost: You’ll need less equipment, materials, water, and electricity for a one-plant harvest.
  • Legal restrictions: If your local laws only allow home grows of a few plants, you can start with a few clones, and take the best one to harvest.
  • Beginner grows: If you’re just starting out, you can learn from mistakes without putting too much cash and effort into your first few attempts.
  • Experimentation: More advanced cannabis cultivators may want to do one-plant grows to try out new techniques.

If you manage to pull off a decent harvest, your savings in dispensary weed can even offset your gardening investment. Who knows? You might decide to keep going with your new hobby. In any case, let’s get you started with our 10-step, seed-to-harvest guide to growing a single cannabis plant. 

Step #1: Learn Everything You Can About Growing Cannabis

There’s no substitute for the advice of experienced cannabis growers. Cultivating top-notch ganja and harvesting high yields is both a science and an art, which takes years to master. You’ll want to spend some time studying the work of cannabis-growing experts, especially if you’re not already a gardener.

Here are some suggestions to get you started:

  • Marijuana Grower’s Handbook by the Guru of Ganja, Ed Rosenthal
  • True Living Organics by the Rev, Skunk magazine’s cannabis growing expert
  • The Cannabis Grow Bible by Greg Green
  •, a compilation of cannabis-related resources

Step #2: Order Seeds or Clones

The first decision you’ll need to make is the choice to start with seeds or clones from a reputable seed bank. If you’re planning to grow from seed, you’ll want to buy at least a 3-pack just in case the first seed fails to germinate. And since you’re just growing one plant, you’ll need high-quality feminized seeds to make sure your plant’s a bud-producing female.

With clones, you can be sure that your plant will be female. But depending on where you live, you may have difficulty obtaining clones or have a limited strain selection.

Your second big decision will be which strain of cannabis you’ll grow. Some questions you may want to ask yourself before choosing a strain include:

  • Is this strain easy to grow? Select a hearty variety that’s relatively pest and disease resistant.
  • What are the minimum and maximum yields from this strain? Since you’re only growing one plant indoors, you’ll want a strain that’s capable of large yields in small spaces.
  • What are your desired effects? Are you looking for a strain for relaxing after work, energizing your creativity, or for therapeutic purposes? 

Step #3: Choose Your Grow Space

Before you head off to buy equipment, you’ll need to decide where you’re going to grow. Here’s a few important things to consider when choosing your grow space:

  • Location to services: Select a growing area that’s convenient for electrical access, water supplies, and exhaust windows.
  • Privacy: Besides protecting your plant from prying eyes, you’ll want to keep your grow area safe from children and pets who can damage plants and introduce insects.
  • Tent or closet: While repurposed closets may seem convenient, you’ll need to modify them considerably to make them suitable for growing cannabis. Small grow tents are relatively economical and offer many advantages. If you have a bit of extra money to invest, you can even buy a grow tent package that includes everything you’ll need.

Step #4: Decide on Your Grow Medium

Indoor growers have a ton of choices with respect to grow mediums: rockwool, coco coir, jiffy pellets, even aeroponics. However, good old-fashioned soil is by far the best growing medium for a one-plant grow, especially if you’re a beginner. 

Soil naturally maintains a certain level of balance in nutrient levels. With soil, you won’t have to obsess about the pH of your water or shell out tons of cash for expensive nutrients.

We recommend starting with a high-quality, organic soil and adding perlite to increase airflow and drainage.

Step #5: Get Equipment and Set Up Your Space

The most essential and costly equipment you’ll need are grow lights, fans, and filters.


Since you’re only growing one plant, you have several viable choices when it comes to lighting, including:

  1. Metal halide (MH) and high-pressure sodium(HPS) – As more growers are switching to LED and other modern lighting systems, you’ll be able to find used old-school MH/HPS systems at deep discounts. You may even have a friend who’s willing to lend you some lights. However, MH and HPS lights tend to use a fair amount of electricity and generate a lot of heat. The cost of your power bill may quickly outweigh the low investment for lights. 
  2. Compact fluorescents (CFLs) – CFL’s are by far the best budget option for small grows. They’re inexpensive to purchase, cheap to run, and don’t give off much heat. You can screw CFLs into just about any light fixture you already have on hand, so you won’t need an expensive ballast. CFLs don’t generate much heat, so you can place them closer to your buds and use them for the seedling stage without worrying about burning your plants.
  3. Full-spectrum LED – If you’re not on a tight budget, a full-spectrum LED is the way to go for your indoor grow. LEDs are energy efficient, and you won’t need to worry about changing bulbs for the flowering stage. Furthermore, LEDs hardly generate any heat, so you’ll be able to let your plant grow taller without worrying about it getting burned by your light.

Other Equipment

A fan and a filter are essential items for a grow room, even if you’re only growing one plant. Your plant will need adequate airflow to thrive, you may need to reduce the heat from the lights, and you’ll probably want to filter out the cannabis odor during the flowering stage. Although you can buy them separately, a fan/filter combo will work fine for a single plant harvest.

Humidity is another critical consideration for growing cannabis. Depending on your location, you may need a humidifier or dehumidifier to optimize conditions in your grow space. In any case, make sure you place a thermometer and hygrometer in your grow area. 

You’ll need to gather a few other relatively inexpensive items before starting your grow, such as:

  • Containers in at least three different sizes
  • Razors and scissors for pruning and training
  • NPK fertilizers and/or organic teas
  • A pH kit, jeweler’s loupe, spray bottle, and a timer

Steps #6: Germinate Seeds or Start Clones

The most common way to germinate cannabis seeds is to soak them in a glass overnight, and then use the paper towel method to get them to sprout.

Once your seed has sprouted, you’ve planted it in soil, and it starts to grow, your plant will have entered the delicate seedling stage. Think of your new plant as a baby. Make sure you don’t overwater or overfeed your seedling, and be careful not to burn it with your grow light.

When your plant grows around seven or eight sets of leaves, transfer it into a pot about double the size of your original container. Give the plants 3 or 4 days to adapt to the new containers, and then prepare the conditions of your grow room for the vegetative stage.

Step #7: Conquer the Vegetative Stage

The vegetative stage is your big chance to convince your plant to yield a huge harvest. There are a lot of factors that will contribute to the development of your plant, including:

  • Lighting: The optimum light cycle for the vegetative stage is 18 hours of light and 6 hours of darkness. If you’re not using a full-spectrum LED, make sure that your bulbs emit blue spectrum light.
  • Feeding: Plants need lots of nitrogen during the vegetative stage. Be careful not to overwater your plant.
  • Training: Use fimming, topping, and low-stress training to get your plant to expand horizontally into an even canopy. This will allow your plant to continue to flower without a protruding top bud getting too close to the grow lights.
  • Protecting: Monitor for pests and diseases. Neem oil is an excellent all-purpose, natural insecticide.

Step #8: Ace the Flowering Stage

You’ll need to make a few major changes to switch your plant to the flowering stage:

  • Change the light cycle to 12 hours on and 12 hours off, and switch to red-spectrum bulbs if you’re using a CFL or MH/HPS setup. 
  • Give your plant a fertilizer with less nitrogen and more phosphorus and potassium. 
  • Examine your plant carefully. Pests and mold can sneak into the center of your buds and ruin your crop.

Step #9: Harvest and Cure Your Buds

One of the biggest questions for beginner cannabis growers is knowing when to harvest. Some tell-tale signs that you buds are ready to harvest include:

  • The leaves start turning yellow and falling off.
  • Pistils turn orange or red and shrink. 
  • The trichomes change from clear to mostly cloudy to amber. Use a jeweler’s loupe to inspect the trichomes. 

It’s a good idea to read up on harvesting and curing while your waiting for your buds to mature. After all that hard work, you won’t want to ruin your crop with improper curing. You can find plenty of videos on harvesting and curing on YouTube. 

Step #10: Enjoy the Fruits of Your Labor!

After your buds have cured for a few weeks, you can finally reap the rewards of months of effort growing your cannabis plant. Roll up a doobie or test your bud with a dry-herb vape to get the full flavor. Turn your leaves and trim into butter or oil for cooking. You can even make tea from the stems. Now that you’ve successfully completed your first one-plant grow, are you ready to turn it up the intensity and rise to step 11?

Next time…Grow two plants.

What is THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)?

What is THC

THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, is the chemical responsible for most of marijuana’s psychological effects. It acts much like the cannabinoid chemicals made naturally by the body, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

Cannabinoid receptors are concentrated in certain areas of the brain associated with thinking, memory, pleasure, coordination and time perception. THC attaches to these receptors and activates them and affects a person’s memory, pleasure, movements, thinking, concentration, coordination, and sensory and time perception, according to NIDA.

THC is one of many compounds found in the resin secreted by glands of the marijuana plant. More of these glands are found around the reproductive organs of the plant than on any other area of the plant. Other compounds unique to marijuana, called cannabinoids, are present in this resin. One cannabinoid, CBD is nonpsychoactive, according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information, and actually blocks the high associated with THC. 

THC Composition

THC has the chemical formula C₂₁H₃₀O₂, with a molecular mass of 314.464 g/mol. But, it is very similar in structure and molecular mass to its counterpart CBD, which dilutes the effects of THC.

THC Uses

THC brags a variety of uses, both medicinal and recreational.

Among dozens, THC can be used in syrups, edibles, oils used via tinctures, drops, in medicines, and topicals including lotions and balms used for anti-inflammation.

THC and cannabis can also be used on animals like dogs for pain relief and calming anxiety. 

Additionally, Marinol, a medication made with synthetic THC, is the only currently FDA approved THC medication.

THC Side Effects

What is THC

Still, despite a variety of uses that have many doctors, producers, and investors optimistic, THC may have some negative side effects that ought to be considered.

In 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine released a study on the Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. Among the experts who contributed to the study was Dr. William Checkley, M.D., Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University. As an associate professor at Johns Hopkins as well as a pulmonary and critical care specialist, Dr. Checkley claims there may be more negative effects of THC than many experts believe.

“One of the biggest issues with cannabis is when you smoke it. It is not just the drug that you’re smoking in…there are also all different kinds of components that come in with the burning of any substance,” Dr. Checkley told TheStreet. “There is substantial evidence supporting an association between cannabis smoking and respiratory symptoms. And people who smoke cannabis have more frequent episodes of respiratory symptoms and in particular, chronic bronchitis, which is a combination of cough and phlegm.”

Still, the doctor said the study was somewhat inconclusive on the extent of these effects.

“It’s clear that if you stop smoking cannabis, your respiratory symptoms can improve,” Dr. Checkley said. “What is less clear is that we couldn’t really separate how it is with people who smoke cannabis frequently or chronically — whether they are high risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is what you see with tobacco smoke.”

And that seems to be the general consensus on cannabis-based studies — that they are, to some degree, inconclusive. Still, Dr. Checkley claims the study seemed to dispel some of the common ideas that THC has more beneficial properties than it may actually possess.

According to Dr. Checkley, the study couldn’t find any link between cannabis or cannabinoid use and many of its supposed benefits. 

However, the report allegedly found some connection with THC or cannabis use and certain psychiatric conditions.

“One aspect of the report showed that there was a strong link between the use of cannabis and the development of schizophrenia,” Dr. Checkley continued. “And also that the use of cannabis was also associated with mania or hyper mania in people that had bipolar disorder diagnoses. And there has also been a small increased risk of depression as well as increased incidents of suicide attempts and completion. And there was also increased incidents of social anxiety disorder.”

Other studies done last year have shown similar conclusions, although all remain somewhat skeptical. Results published in the journal Human Molecular Genetics by researchers from Tel Aviv University (TAU) in Israel may shed additional light on the relationship between THC use and psychiatric problems.

“Our research demonstrates that cannabis has a differential risk on susceptible versus non-susceptible individuals,” Dr. Ran Barzilay, psychiatrist at TAU’s Sackler School of Medicine told Medical News Today in 2017. “In other words, young people with a genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia — those who have psychiatric disorders in their families — should bear in mind that they’re playing with fire if they smoke pot during adolescence.”

Apart from psychiatric problems and doubt over its benefits for curing symptoms, THC use has also been linked to reduced motor skills, Dr. Checkley says. The study used 21 studies from different countries with a sample size of almost 240,000 participants, claims Dr. Checkley.

“One of the things that we found was that some reported cannabis use with traces of THC in the blood or saliva was associated with about… 20% to 30% higher odds of vehicle crash,” Dr. Checkley explained to TheStreet. “And this was pretty consistent, so it didn’t really matter how you looked at the data. And so I think the information there was pretty robust, given the number of studies and given the number of countries, and the number of participants supporting that relationships between cannabis use and the increased chances of being in a motor vehicle crash.”

However, despite numerous studies, all of the experts seem to agree that due to cannabis’ classification as a Schedule 1 drug, the limited studies researchers are able to perform leave the substance’s actual effects very much still in question.

In fact, most are optimistic about THC and cannabis’ health benefits.

Medicinal uses

According to the National Cancer Institute, marijuana has been used for medicinal purposes for more than 3,000 years. As of early 2017, more than half of the United States has legalized the use of medicinal marijuana. Several states have also legalized the drug for recreational use, as well.

THC can be extracted from marijuana, or synthesized, as is the case for the FDA-approved drug dronabinol. Dronabinol is used to treat or prevent the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer medicines and to increase the appetites of people with AIDS, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. It is a light yellow resinous oil.

Other studies are showing more evidence that, when used properly, THC has many additional medical benefits. For example, THC may be able to improve memory when taken in small doses, according to a 2016 study on mice. Advertisement

People tout marijuana as a better drug than prescription pills because it is “all-natural.” That may not be true. “Just because something is considered ‘natural’ doesn’t mean it’s healthy,” Raskin said. “For example, poison oak can be harmful. Just because it grows in the ground doesn’t mean it’s good for you or healthy.”

CBD vs. THC: Chemical structure

What is THC

Both CBD and THC have the exact same molecular structure: 21 carbon atoms, 30 hydrogen atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms. A slight difference in how the atoms are arranged accounts for the differing effects on your body.

Both CBD and THC are chemically similar to your body’s endocannabinoids. This allows them to interact with your cannabinoid receptors.

The interaction affects the release of neurotransmitters in your brain. Neurotransmitters are chemicals responsible for relaying messages between cells and have roles in pain, immune function, stress, and sleep, to name a few.

CBD vs. THC: Psychoactive components

Despite their similar chemical structures, CBD and THC don’t have the same psychoactive effects. CBD is psychoactive, just not in the same manner as THC. It doesn’t produce the high associated with THC. CBD is shown to help with anxiety, depression, and seizures.

THC binds with the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in the brain. It produces a high or sense of euphoria.

CBD binds very weakly, if at all, to CB1 receptors. CBD needs THC to bind to the CB1 receptor and, in turn, can help reduce some of the unwanted psychoactive effects of THC, such as euphoria or sedation.

CBD vs. THC: Legality

In the United States, cannabis-related laws are evolving regularly. Technically, CBD is still considered a Schedule I drug under federal law.

Hemp has been removed from the Controlled Substances Act, but the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) still classify CBD as a Schedule I drug.

However, 33 states plus Washington, D.C., have passed cannabis-related laws, making medical cannabis with high levels of THC legal. The cannabis may need to be prescribed by a licensed physician.

In addition, several states have made recreational use of cannabis and THC legal.

In states where cannabis is legal for recreational or medical purposes, you should be able to buy CBD.

Before you try to buy products with CBD or THC, it’s important to research your state’s laws.

If you possess cannabis-related products in a state where they’re illegal or don’t have a medical prescription in states where the products are legal for medical treatment, you could face legal penalties.

CBD vs. THC: Medical benefits

CBD and THC have many of the same medical benefits. They can provide relief from several of the same conditions. However, CBD doesn’t cause the euphoric effects that occur with THC. Some people may prefer to use CBD because of the lack of this side effect.

In June 2018, the FDA approvedTrusted Source Epidiolex, the first prescription medication to contain CBD. It’s used to treat rare, difficult-to-control forms of epilepsy. (Epidiolex is not currently approved for any of the other conditions listed below.)

CBD is used to help with other various conditions, such as:

  • seizures
  • inflammation
  • pain
  • psychosis or mental disorders
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • nausea
  • migraine
  • depression
  • anxiety

THC is used to help with the following:

  • pain
  • muscle spasticity
  • glaucoma
  • insomnia
  • low appetite
  • nausea
  • anxiety

Hemp CBD vs. Cannabis CBD

Hemp CBD vs. Cannabis CBD

What’s in a name? When it comes to CBD products derived from hemp, CBD products derived from cannabis, and what’s considered legal, a lot. Understanding cannabis nomenclature and the chemical difference between the two plants is essential to making informed choices about CBD.

Cannabis refers to a genus of plants which has three species: indica, sativa, and ruderalis. Hemp is not a different species of the cannabis plant. The above classifications have been devised to differentiate intoxicating cannabis from non-intoxicating cannabis. Hemp is a sativa species, while cannabis can be sativa, indica, or ruderalis.

What is hemp? 

The term “hemp” is used to mean cannabis that contains 0.3 percent or less THC content by dry weight.

Why 0.3 percent? This definition was first proposed in 1979, in a book called “The Species Problem in Cannabis: Science & Semantics.”

In the book, author Ernest Small addresses the fact that it’s difficult to distinguish hemp and cannabis because there’s no actual taxonomical difference between the two.

Small proposed the 0.3 percent rule as a possible solution, but he himself acknowledged that it’s an arbitrary number.

This number was used in the legal definition of hemp, as specified in the Agricultural Act of 2018 and other laws in the United States.

Because the THC level in hemp is so low, it’s unlikely to get you high.

What is marijuana? 

Usually, when people say “marijuana,” they’re talking about cannabis that can get you high. The term is used interchangeably with “weed” and a number of other terms.

Legally, “marijuana” refers to cannabis that has more than 0.3 percent THC by dry weight. THC content can vary among cannabis plants. Some strains are bred to be higher in THC than others.

Cannabis plants have been designated as Cannabis sativaCannabis indica, or a hybrid. Each of these has its own purported characteristics and effects, although science has yet to verify this.

History and racism

Hemp CBD vs. Cannabis CBD

The word “marijuana” is quite controversial due its racist roots.

In the early 20th century, many Mexicans immigrated to the United States due to the Mexican Revolution. This led to growing racist and anti-immigrant sentiment in the United States. At this time, cannabis was a legal cross-border import.

The word “marijuana” hadn’t been used a lot before then. Instead, the word “cannabis” was the scientific name and far more commonly used. However, in the 1910s and 1920s, the word “marijuana” became associated with Mexicans, who were stereotyped as people who frequently used cannabis.

The U.S. government used the term “marijuana” in anti-cannabis propaganda to cement the association between cannabis and Mexican immigrants. This anti-cannabis propaganda spread a great deal of myths around cannabis while also perpetuating racist stereotypes.

In the 1930s, this propaganda persisted and heavily contributed to cannabis becoming illegal.

To this day, there’s a great deal of debate over what we should call “marijuana.”

Because it’s tied to racist and anti-cannabis propaganda, “marijuana” is a word that many people in the industry are no longer using, preferring to simply use the word “cannabis” instead.

This can be confusing, because the Cannabis species also includes hemp.


One critical point of difference between hemp-derived CBD and marijuana-derived CBD is the resin content of each plant. Cannabis resin is found within the trichomes of buds and, to a lesser extent, on the leaves. 

Marijuana plants usually contain copious amounts of resin, while industrial hemp plants contain significantly less. Following that logic, marijuana offers a more abundant source of CBD than hemp. In order to extract CBD oil from hemp plants, a much larger quantity is needed. 

There is an exception to this rule. Some emerging craft hemp varieties possess unusually high concentrations of CBD, such as Cherry Charlotte, Cobbler, and Berry Blossom. These cultivars contain between 12% and 20% CBD content with 0.3% THC or less.


Where and how the CBD is sourced has a major effect on contamination levels. A lack of stringent local regulations surrounding the production and refinement of hemp could lead to highly contaminated CBD products. 

For instance, in China there are few regulations enforced on the agricultural industry, leading to the production of hemp-derived CBD products that tend to contain high levels of contaminants. Studies show that, due to the country’s mining activities, some regions in China have water and soil that are contaminated with heavy metals.

These contaminants manifest as toxicants within the hemp that can potentially taint CBD oil sourced from these plants. In order to remove the risk of ingesting contaminated CBD, it is safer to consume hemp-derived CBD products that are grown without chemical pesticides and tested by a third party. 

Isolate vs. full-spectrum CBD

CBD isolate products are those which contain only the CBD molecule, with no accompanying terpenes, THC, or other cannabinoids. For patients with certain medical conditions, or those wishing to avoid THC, CBD isolates made from hemp may be preferred. The alternative to CBD isolates would be whole-plant or full-spectrum CBD products. 

Hemp CBD vs. Cannabis CBD

“Full-spectrum hemp is the extraction of all of the components — cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, etc. — of the hemp plant including low levels of THC,” explained Dr. Chanda Macias, CEO of Women Grow, an organization connecting female professionals in the cannabis industry; and CEO of National Holistic, a healing center based in Washington, D.C. 

Marijuana plants, on the other hand, tend to contain a more diverse terpene profile than hemp. CBD products derived from marijuana plants also tend to contain THC levels higher than 0.3%.

“When you extract from marijuana, you get the added benefit of added terpene profiles that you can customize. Terpenes have an important therapeutic value,” said Dr. Herve Damas, a physician specializing in CBD treatment for professional athletes and director of Grassroots Herbals, a producer of CBD products.


CBD is attracting considerable public interest because of its promise in treating various physical and mental health issues, even though there is no scientific evidence to prove these health claims.

Hemp and cannabis are two different varieties of the C. sativa plant with hemp containing more CBD and minimal THC.

Most CBD products are made from hemp plants as they contain far more CBD and almost no THC, which is the compound that creates the ‘high.’

Individuals considering using CBD for physical or mental challenges should inform their doctors to make sure it does not interact with any medications they may be taking.

The main difference between hemp CBD and cannabis CBD is legal standing.

What Is Hash?


Hash comes from trichomes, the ripe, resinous gland heads that line the surface of cannabis plants. Processes to achieve resin separation have been practiced for centuries, however, the rapid rise of cannabis legalization in the Western world has brought new methods in hash preparation that are sweeping legal markets by storm.

Where does hash originally come from?

The word “hashish” originates from the Arabic language, roughly translating to mean “grass.” It is believed that the popularization of hash originated around AD 900, although some argue methods such as charas, or the collection of resin from the hands of cannabis farmers, are believed to have existed prior to written documentation.

As a result of early European exploration into Africa, hashish made its appearance in the Western world at the turn of the 19th century. For years, European doctors imported hashish to conduct research, which led to the introduction of various extraction methods that allowed for further refinement into medications.

By the turn of the 20th century, cannabis extractions were accounting for a large majority of Western pharmacopeia. It wasn’t until US prohibition of cannabis in the early 20th century that hashish products were outlawed from Western medicine and pushed back into the black market.

Different types of hash


Dry sift hash

With the reemergence of cannabis enthusiasm in the 1960s, hashish found its way back into the limelight. Countries such as Nepal, Afghanistan, and Morocco saw an increase of hash exportation into Western countries. At this time the varieties of hash imported were old world varieties, mainly hard-pressed, brick-like solids made from heat and pressure.

It wasn’t until the late 1980s when gland separation was introduced to the West through a machine called the “master sifter.” According to Ed Rosenthal and his book Beyond Buds, this breakthrough machine by John Gallardi used vibration to separate the trichome gland heads from the plant material.

Ice water (bubble) hash

During this time, Neil Schumacher and Rob Clarke began experimenting with water extraction methods, the early precursor for what we now refer to as ice water hash, or bubble hash. The equipment used to popularize the ice water extraction method was first introduced to the public in 1997 by Reinhard C. Delp at the High Times Cannabis Cup. His patents would later be adapted and modified by Mila Jansen with her pollinator isolation bags.

This design would be further improved upon by Canadian hash enthusiast Marcus “Bubbleman” Richardson and his popular line of BubbleBags, one of only a handful of companies worldwide who have leased permissions to use methods from the original patent filed in 1999.

What are the health effects of hashish use?

The short-term effects of hashish use include problems with memory and learning; distorted perception (sights, sounds, time, touch); difficulty in thinking and problem solving; loss of coordination; and increased heart rate, anxiety, and panic attacks. The effects may be more intense due to the high concentration of THC found in hash and other concentrates.

THC in marijuana is strongly absorbed by fatty tissues in various organs. Generally, traces of THC can be detected by standard urine testing methods several days after a smoking session. In heavy chronic users, traces can sometimes be detected for weeks after they have stopped using marijuana or its concentrates.

THC in hashish is many times more potent that the levels of THC found in standard marijuana. Levels of THC found in marijuana have skyrocketed over the last two decades. According to samples tested by the DEA, percentage of THC in marijuana has gone from roughly 4% in 1998 to over 15.5% in 2018.

The long term effects of hashish or marijuana concentrate use are not yet fully known; but, long-term marijuana plant-use has been studied.

  • Psychological effects can include paranoia, anxiety, panic attacks, and hallucinations.
  • Alterations in heart rate and blood pressure may occur.
  • People who inhale THC products often have the same respiratory problems as cigarette smokers. These individuals may have daily cough and phlegm, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, and more frequent chest colds. They are prone to lung infections like pneumonia. Marijuana smoke may contain some of the same cancer-causing chemicals found in cigarette smoke (toxins and tar).
  • Marijuana and THC affects memory, judgment and perception. Learning and attention skills are impaired among people who use marijuana  heavily.

Studies show that marijuana use from a young age can affect brain development and IQ levels. 

Effects on pregnancy

Any drug of abuse can affect a mother’s health during pregnancy.

  • Some studies have found that babies born to mothers who used marijuana (THC) during pregnancy were smaller than those born to mothers who did not use the drug. In general, smaller babies are more likely to develop health problems.
  • A nursing mother who uses marijuana passes some of the THC to the baby in her breast milk. Research indicates that the use of marijuana by a mother during the first month of breast-feeding can impair the infant’s motor development.

Addictive potential

A drug is addicting if it causes compulsive, uncontrollable drug craving, seeking, and use, even in the face of negative health and social consequences.

While not everyone who uses marijuana or hashish(THC) becomes addicted, when a user begins to seek out and take the drug compulsively, that person is said to be dependent or addicted to the drug.

Some frequent, heavy users of marijuana (THC) develop a tolerance for it. Tolerance means that the user needs larger doses of the drug to get the same desired results that they used to get from smaller amounts.

Long-term marijuana users may also experience withdrawal and addiction problems. Mild withdrawal symptoms that have been reported in those trying to quit include:

  • irritability
  • trouble sleeping
  • decreased appetite
  • anxiety
  • cravings

No medicines are available to treat marijuana use disorder, but behavioral support can be effective. Speak with your doctor if you are seeking treatment for marijuana use disorder.

Does hash give you a different high? Is it stronger than weed?

Smoking hash vs. weed can have different effects. Well-made hashish generally has a stronger effect than the plant it came from. This does not apply to all hashish though, as some lower-quality forms may contain copious amounts of ‘filler’ material which can include sand, henna, plastic, oil, or even animal hair or dung.

But as a general rule, hashish is a more concentrated form of the plant it comes from. In fact, it became the primary means of utilizing cannabis in many countries because local outdoor cannabis was relatively low in cannabinoid concentration. That means a significant amount has to be used in order to achieve a noticeable effect.


The high of both hash and weed is influenced by the strain of cannabis that was used. Just like weed, the psychoactive elements of hashish should mirror that of the parent plant, though there does appear to be some degree of subjective difference in the nature of the effect compared to weed. For example, many people consider hashish to have a clearer, more cerebral effect, even if the plant itself induces a more relaxed, soporific effect in the user.

The taste may differ as well. Many people consider the taste of hashish to be earthier and less floral than the parent plant, although this can depend greatly on the extraction method and how much plant material remains in the hashish.

How is hash made?

Traditionally, mechanical separation has been the primary means of extracting the resin from the flowers. It’s either dried or sieved (dry-sifted) before being shaped and pressed into blocks, or by using the hands to rub the fresh plant so that the resin adheres to the skin and must be scraped off.

Dry-sift hashish is by far the more common in global terms. Several large producer countries including Morocco and Lebanon produce only dry-sift hashish. Even in Afghanistan (along with Morocco, the world’s largest hashish producer), the bulk of hashish destined for export is dry-sift. However, Afghanistan is part of the geographical region that is traditionally known for producing hand-rubbed hashish; it still produces significant quantities of hand-rubbed hashish, along with India, Pakistan, and several other South Asian countries.

How many grams are in an ounce of weed?

How many grams are in an ounce of weed

If you’re just venturing into the world of cannabis you are probably a little bit surprised by just how much math is involved in the process. Marijuana is generally measured within the context of an ounce.

Of course, you can purchase marijuana in smaller increments, via a gram at a time, or you can purchase in bulk. For example, an eighth (one eight of an ounce, 3.5 grams) usually costs significantly less than buying three grams of marijuana separately.

You can also get a quarter of an ounce (¼ or 7 grams), a half ounce (½ or 14 grams) or, a full ounce (28 grams). The more you buy the cheaper the price, so think of it as a bulk discount.

Credit: Medical Jane / Getty Images

Naturally, larger quantities of cannabis are possible but once you push past an ounce buying marijuana it becomes both cost prohibitive, and in many states, illegal.

As of now, most state with marijuana legalization allows up to one ounce of marijuana on hand.

That’s a precursory glance at the world of cannabis and the typical weights that come along with purchasing weed. Today we dive deep into the world of marijuana measurements. Read on, won’t you?

Marijuana Grams

The gram is your base unit of measurement when it comes to buying marijuana. A single gram is enough for a few joints (depending on how you roll) or one or two moderate blunts.

How much weight is a gram of weed?

A gram is the smallest weight of marijuana you can buy and it doesn’t weigh much of anything. To put this into context, a gram is one twenty-eighth of an ounce (1/28). One gram will easily fit into the palm of your hand.

How many grams are in an ounce of weed?

What Is An Eighth Of Weed? (3.5 Grams)

How many grams are in an ounce of weed?

An eighth is 1/8th of an ounce and is equivalent to 3.5 grams. It’s the most common weight purchased by cannabis consumers due to its affordability and convenience.

Eighths are ideal for casual to moderate smokers. An eighth can be rolled into roughly 7 half-gram joints or 14 quarter-gram bowls. The price of an eighth of cannabis can vary greatly around the country, but they generally range from $25-$55 in Colorado/California to upwards of $60 on the East Coast (you can pick up an eighth of Canna Comfort’s Suver Huze organic hemp flower for only $30).

I’ve discovered you can even fit an eighth of rolled cannabis in a safety case.

What Is A Quarter Of Weed? (7 Grams)

How many grams are in an ounce of weed?

A quarter – sometimes referred to as a quad – is 1/4th of an ounce and weighs in at 7 grams. Buying by the quarter is also very common as it allows heavier smokers to really get acquainted with a strain – an eighth can go quickly!

At the quarter ounce level, some minor price breaks can sometimes be seen (depending on the specific dispensary or caregiver) but don’t expect them.  Depending on your area, a quarter ounce of cannabis can run anywhere between $50 to $100.  A quarter of hemp flower will generally run around $55.

Canna Comfort’s excellent Suver Haze is only $50 per Quarter.

What Is A Half Ounce? (14 Grams)

How many grams are in an ounce of weed?

A half ounce equates to 14 grams of cannabis. Substantial price breaks, in terms of price per gram, typically begin at the half ounce quantity. For reference, many infused butter/oil recipes (for edibles) call for a half ounce of dried cannabis.

You are absolutely free and able to cook with less, just be aware that, depending on your recipe, it may lower the potency of the finished edibles.

What Is An Ounce Of Cannabis? (28 Grams)

How many grams are in an ounce of weed?

An ounce of cannabis (or an ounce of anything, for that matter) weighs 28 grams. Also known as a zip, buying by the ounce is the most cost-effective way to purchase legal cannabis. In fact, many dispensaries and caregivers offer ounce specials. If you are a daily cannabis or hemp flower consumer, ounces are the way to go.

For reference, Canna Comforts’ Suver Haze strain runs only $90 for an ounce.

How to convert ounces of weed to grams

For reference, here is a quick conversion guide from ounces of weed into grams.

  • Eighth (1/8) ounce = 3.5 grams
  • Quarter (1/4) ounce = 7 grams
  • Half (1/2) ounce = 14 grams
  • Full (1) ounce = 28 grams

The price of flower varies depending on the quality of the product and the market in which it is sold. You can expect to pay between $4 and $20 for a gram of flower—sometimes getting a price break when you purchase larger quantities.

Express Summary: Ounces vs grams of weed

Cannabis quantities can be confusing. How much is a gram of weed? How big is an ounce? And an eighth is an eighth of what, exactly? Let’s zoom out. Cannabis flower is often sold in quantities, ranging from one gram to one ounce. Some common terms you hear are an eighth, which means an eighth of an ounce (or three and a half grams), a quarter ounce (or seven grams), and a half ounce, (14 grams).

The smallest amount of cannabis flour you can typically buy is one gram. A gram is going to roll about two joints or three to four bowls, making it a great option for the occasional consumer or when trying a new strain. Next size up is three and a half grams, or an eighth. That’s enough for about seven joints, seven grams or quarter ounce will get you about 14 joints, which means that 14 grams (or a half ounce) can roll nearly 30 joints. So, a full ounce of cannabis, which is 28 grams, can roll nearly 60 joints or pack upwards of 100 bowls. It’s worth noting that pre-rolled joints are often sold in half gram or full gram quantities. You may choose a half gram to share with a friend or a full gram for a larger group.

The last thing to know is about density of your cannabis flower, as it varies greatly by strain. So an eighth of dense gelato buds might look full and dense, while an eighth of Maui Wowie buds look light and fluffy.


This is the most obvious way to check your measurements. It’s also the most accurate way to go about it.

If you’re looking to purchase a scale, go for accuracy within 0.1 grams. This means you should not attempt to use a kitchen scale. You should also be looking for something with a high capacity, at least to 200 grams.

You don’t have to be extremely precise, and you can probably find a relatively good scale for cheap on the internet.

Penny and Ruler

You can create a makeshift scale by laying a ruler on a flat surface and using a penny on one end and weed on the other. Any penny after 1982 should weigh 2.5 grams, so when you’re “scale” is balanced, you’ll know you have 2.5 grams.

Use Your Phone

Kids these days and their newfangled phone apps, let me tell ya. Now they can measure their weed just by placing it on the screen!

This isn’t the most accurate way to go about it, but in a pinch, downloading a highly-rated scale app to weight out your weed is better than eyeballing it. Be careful though – a lot of these apps are pretty inaccurate, and aren’t as easy to use as you might think.

Final Thoughts

If you get your weed from an unregulated source, being able to double-check the accuracy of the measurement is important. Buying from the dispensary should make it easy to know the measurements are accurate, though the amounts will still be rounded.

Still, if you are a heavy smoker and frequently buy small amounts that are rounded down, you may be doing yourself a disservice. All those little numbers add up.



Whether your state has a medical marijuana program, legal adult-use weed, or both, cannabis packaging has come a long way in recent years. These days, marijuana products are likely to have a harvest date on them, but very rarely does flower come with an expiration date. So even with packaging improvements, you’re probably still left with the age-old questions: how long does weed last and how can you keep weed fresh?

In this article, we’ll review why it’s important to store your weed properly, how to keep your weed fresh, and how long weed lasts in ideal conditions.

Why proper cannabis storage is so important

Moisture is the biggest threat to the shelf life of cannabis. Overly moist cannabis can also have serious health consequences, namely by encouraging the growth of mold and mildew. These risks are so serious that the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), which develops technical standards across many industries, published the “Standard Specification for Maintaining Acceptable Water Activity (aw) Range (0.55 to 0.65) for Dry Cannabis Flower” in May 2018.

The ATSM defines water activity as “the (quantitative) capability of the cannabis flower in a sealed container to affect the humidity of the container’s headspace air.” Headspace is the air that surrounds the flower. Water activity measures vapor pressure against pure water. If water activity is 0.55, it is 55% water.


A relative humidity level anywhere above 65% can significantly increase the likelihood that your weed will end up growing mold. According to the American Herbal Products Association, the drying process will dehydrate cannabis until it has a moisture content of less than 15%, and the curing process is where the remaining moisture is slowly removed to retain the volatile oils.

So, too much moisture is bad, but lose too much and it can change the integrity of your flower. For example, your flower could become brittle and lose essential terpenes that affect potency and taste.

Luckily, the process of striking the perfect balance starts way before you buy weed. While no two cultivators dry their flowers in the same way, all cultivators dry their flowers and then put them through a process called curing.

When cannabis is properly cured, it allows the moisture that is trapped inside the bud to slowly dissipate from the flower without damaging the cannabinoids and terpenes. Once the flower has the perfect moisture content (typically between 6% and 9%), it is placed into packaging from which excess oxygen has been removed. When you take it home, it’s important to try to maintain that balance.

Proper storage involves keeping the water activity of your cannabis within a range of 0.55 and 0.65. Water activity increases with temperature, which is why light and temperature control go hand-in-hand as best practices for keeping buds fresh. 

The Chemistry of Keeping Weed Fresh

It’s important to understand how air temperature, humidity, and light interact with the chemistry of your cannabis. When you know how to control those factors, you’ll be able to keep your reefer really fresh for longer periods of time.

Air Temperature

It’s important to store your stash in a spot with cool, but not cold, air temperatures in order to preserve the psychoactive potency of your pot.

Decarboxylation is the process by which raw, organic, cannabinoids in their plant form (such as THC, CBD, CBN, and CBG) are activated so that the natural endocannabinoid system in your body can reap the benefits.

There are so many advantages to fresh decarboxylated weed that we couldn’t possibly ever list them…even in one single run-on sentence.

The thing is, the THC in your weed will lose its euphoric kick and degrade into the cannabinoid CBN (which will still help you get to sleep but won’t get you high) if you leave it out in the heat.

The aromas and medicinal properties of the terpenes in your weed will also dry out, making your medicine harsher and less healthy to smoke.

And if that’s not bad enough, mildew and other mold may be more likely to manifest on your marijuana from the moisture which accumulates in air temperatures of 77° Fahrenheit or warmer.

Many who read the above information will immediately think, “Put it in the freezer!” But you don’t want to freeze your reefer in an attempt to preserve it in spite of what some sources will suggest.

Yes, super cold ice water, high proof alcohol, and even dry CO2 ice are excellent ways to make the cannabinoid-laden trichome resin freeze up and fall off of freshly harvested sensimilla if you want to make cannabis concentrates for vaporization, edibles, or tinctures.

But if you store your buds in the freezer, the trichomes will break off and ruin the short- and long-term smoking potential of your pot. Don’t do it.

  • Lost THC

As weed is exposed to heat, oxygen, and UV light, the cannabinoids within, including THC, will begin to break down. It doesn’t happen too quickly, but the change can become noticeable after a few weeks. It won’t leave you sober, but a joint won’t get you as high as the one you rolled when you first got it.

  • Conversion to CBN

As that THC breaks down, it doesn’t just disappear. In fact, it’s converted into another cannabinoid, known as CBN. This cannabinoid has some mild psychoactive properties, but it doesn’t get you high on its own. This conversion mainly occurs when weed is exposed to oxygen and heat, although the process takes time.

  • Lost Flavour

Lost THC won’t be the only consequence of keeping your weed in a warm spot. As it gets weaker, it’ll also taste and feel harsher upon smoking. This, of course, is a result of the terpenes drying out over time. Excessive light and moisture will bring about their downfall as well.

Does This Also Happen to CBD-Rich Bud?


If you’re more inclined to smoke CBD-rich strains, you may wonder whether any of this applies to you. Well, since CBD is also a cannabinoid, and since the buds also have terpenes, it too can degrade with age. The high isn’t a factor, but you’ll miss out on the other potential benefits of CBD.

What Causes Weed to Age?

We’ve alluded to certain causes of weed ageing, but let’s go ahead and break the issues down into clear terms.

  • Humidity

You have to maintain a very precise balance when it comes to humidity and cannabis. If your storage method introduces too much moisture, you run the risk of mould infestation. If it isn’t humid enough, though, the terpenes and cannabinoids will end up withering away. While they’re quite different outcomes, the unpleasantness is equal between them.

  • Temperature

Often going hand-in-hand with excess humidity, high temperatures can hasten the degradation of cannabinoids and terpenes. Generally, you should make sure your weed storage area doesn’t get hotter than 25.5ºC (78ºF). Simply enough, this is because any environment between 25.5–30ºC (78–86ºF) is prime for mildew and mould growth.

  • Light

In short, persistent UV light will land a heavy blow on the impact on terpenes, THC, and other cannabinoids. This is especially problematic in tropical areas, where it joins forces with humidity and heat to harm your stash.

  • Container Materials

Lastly, while many aren’t even aware of this, your container’s base material can have a direct impact on your weed’s ageing process. See, while many place their weed in plastic containers, the material can cause your stash to “sweat”. This means, as with actual sweating, your plant will release its inner moisture. It’ll end up dry and harsh as a result.

What are Cannabis Landrace Strains?

Landrace strains

There is a big difference between the cannabis that was available in the 1960s and the cannabis you can get now. Up until the late 1970s, if you were smoking pot, you were likely smoking what was often referred to as “sativa.” These plants were tall, had narrow leaves, and produced wispy flowers. From its original home around India, this cannabis species moved east. It also made its way down the eastern coast of Africa and eventually hitched a ride to the Americas.

A landrace marijuana strain is one of these original strains, and they regularly carry the name of the place they were developed: Thai, Durban Poison, Acapulco Gold, etc. Over the generations, the growing practices and environments particular to each of those locations imparted unique characteristics to each strain’s appearance and chemistry—the fancy word for this is “terroir.”

Whereas sativa landrace strains moved across the globe, indica landraces were isolated in the arid, mountainous regions around Afghanistan and Pakistan. This cannabis is known for its broad leaves, short stature, dense flowers, and the hash that is created from its flowers. These strains also carry the names of places they were developed: Afghani, Hindu Kush, etc.

What is a landrace strain and what makes it unique?

Landrace cannabis strains and landrace seeds have held a special place in the cannabis seed collections of old school connoisseurs and breeders. Landrace strains are the original genetic foundations of modern cannabis hybrids. They have evolved naturally over thousands (possibly millions) of years. They slowly adapted perfectly to the local environment, or terroir. This often shaped the properties and features of the various phenotypes in the landrace strains. How many cannabis landrace strains are there? It’s impossible to say, the illegality of cannabis meant that no official historical botanical records exist.

Landrace sativa strains that evolved in warm, tropical jungle environments may show different properties to landrace indica strains which evolved to survive more hostile and barren mountainous habitats. Some of these genetic features are useful to modern cannabis breeders who may want to amplify certain properties in order to create a new modern hybrid.

Many original landraces strains may have a clue to their country of genetic origin in the strain name, such as Durban Poison (Durban, South Africa), Malawi Gold, Thai, Afghani Kush, Mazar etc.

Are landrace strains still around?

It wasn’t until the late ‘70s that people decided to intentionally breed these two kinds of cannabis together. Eventually, breeders were able to produce offspring that consistently carried the desired characteristics from each type, and perhaps even more importantly, avoid unwanted characteristics that could weaken the plant’s health and production.

These hybrids have now taken over the cannabis market, and this, my ‘60s cannabis smoking friends, is the big difference between what you smoked then and what you smoke now: Today, you are smoking a hybrid of cannabis as opposed to a pure landrace strain.

Are landraces more potent than regular strains?

It really depends on the specific strain and where and how it was grown. If you get your hands on a true landrace, it will most likely be less potent than a strain you find today, as current strains have typically been bred for a higher potency.

Is it hard to find landrace strains?

Those landrace strains from the ‘60s are not grown on a large scale today, but there are a few that carry a big enough following to keep them available in our current market. These are commonly referred to as “heirloom” strains, and they are produced in small batches and carry genetics of the landrace, but lack the original terroir.

There might come a day when the world cannabis markets open up, giving us direct access to landrace strains from around the world, however, until that day, here are a few heirloom strains you can find in your local shop to hold you over.

How many landrace weed strains are there?

Landrace strains

Where is landrace cannabis from? All modern cannabis strains evolved from the many hundreds of original landrace strains. In recent decades, cannabis breeders have bred extensively with original landrace strains in order to improve or amplify their best features.

This has resulted in most landrace strains being somewhat changed from their original pure genetic state. This will sound disappointing to the old school purists. But the breeding work was done for good reasons. Without it, many landrace strains would simply be rejected by modern growers for e.g. being low yielding or with low THC levels. Most of todays cannabis growers don’t mind the fact that landrace sativa seeds were crossed to create some modern sativa crosses with shorter bloom times than e.g. the original landrace Thai sativa.

Where to find landrace strains in the wild? Cannabis still grows in the wild in many tropical climates and mountainous areas. These are probably the best places to find landrace weed and landrace seeds.
If harvest yields/consistency of original landrace strains are improved and THC levels increased, the average indoor grower might consider that to be solid breeding progress. But original cannabis seed companies like Dutch Passion still retain collections of pure unadulterated landrace seeds for future generations.

Many cannabis lovers are torn between the romantic ideal of retaining all landrace strains in their original pure genetic form and the modern desire to maximise yields, taste & potency whilst minimising bloom times. Some growers assume that landrace strains are fundamentally superior to modern strains, yet it should be said that many landrace strains simply lack the cannabinoid content and other features (heavy yields, fast bloom times) that many modern growers consider mandatory.

Landrace cannabis seeds have a fond place in the heart of many cannabis growers. But it’s also fair to say that many of todays cannabis growers perhaps prefer the properties and features of modern cannabis seeds, which may contain landrace genetics. But the best contemporary cannabis seeds also tend to have many of the features demanded by modern growers such as fast bloom times, heavy harvests, high THC levels etc.

Where Have All The Pure Landrace Strains Gone?

Landrace strains

You may be wondering why you haven’t heard about landrace strains before. Where have they all gone?

To answer both questions at the same time: the original landrace strains have been taken out of their native environment and endlessly crossbred with other varieties to produce something new.

When a landrace strain is removed from its indigenous environment (say, Pakistan) and forced to grow elsewhere (say, Mexico), it has to mature in different growing conditions. In response to those new growing conditions, the plant will exhibit new characteristics (e.g., smaller flowers, longer grow time, higher THC).

During that transition from indigenous environment to new growing conditions, some of the characteristics of the original plant will be lost. To get those characteristics back, you’d have to return the plant to its native environment.

Even then, the “purity” would be in question because you’ve grown a plant in a different location (Mexico) — producing slightly different characteristics — and then tried to return the seed to the place where its grandparent plant came from (Pakistan).

See how quickly things can get murky and diluted? It’s enough to make your head swim and your eyes go googly (even without taking a toke). That’s why we recommend not thinking about it too deeply.

It’s enough just to know that landrace strains exist. You don’t have to get intimate with the subject. Just give a polite ‘sup nod as you pass by on your way to the local dispensary for a dime bag of Yoda OG.

Should You Try A Landrace Strain?

Our answer to questions like these is usually a resounding, “Yes!”

There are a few times when we have to say no — like, should you make your own THC-O-Acetate or CO2 cannabis oil — but, for the most part, it never hurts to try.

That said, don’t cash in your life savings for the chance to puff a landrace strain. You’ll probably be disappointed. Modern strains are often better at producing the recreational or medicinal effects that you’re looking for.

Remember, landrace strains aren’t stronger, more potent, or better in some way. They’re just less diluted (genetically speaking) than other strains.

And, honestly, even that’s debatable given how much time has passed since the discovery of the original landrace strain and man’s tendency to crossbreed plants to make them grow “better.”

It’s good to know about landrace strains, but we seriously doubt they’re going to be the next big thing in cannabis consumption unless scientists find something in their DNA that cures cancer better than Rick Simpson oil or completely cures anxiety and depression.

You’re better off using organic, pesticide-free marijuana than spending your hard-earned money on something that claims to be a landrace strain.

For more information on all things marijuana and to check out our 100 percent all-natural cannabis products, visit today.

Recipes with cannabutter

Recipes with cannabutter

If you’re anything like me, you’ve tried cannabis edibles bought at the dispensary and found them to be fantastic. Of course, now you want to make your own, because cooking is your passion, or maybe just a great outlet for your creative juices. Making your own edibles with marijuana is easy enough. All you need to do to get started is make the cannabutter and then follow any recipe, substituting the cannabutter, in part or all, for regular butter. We can start with the following basic recipes.

But First: The Cannabutter Recipe

The first thing you will need to do is to decarboxylate (decarb) your cannabis in order to unlock its potency. If you don’t, you will end up with a weak or inactive product. Once you have done this, you’re ready to make the cannabutter. Use the handy cannabutter dosage calculator on our website to help you figure out the exact amount you will need. Don’t forget, the THC in the bud will determine how strong your cannabutter is.

How To Decarboxylate Cannabis At Home

If you are determined to decarboxylate at home, there are a number of methods available for those who do not wish to purchase a decarboxylator. Some involve the use of a crock-pot, toaster oven, or conventional oven.

However, this quick guide will refer to use of a conventional oven, potentially the most common piece of equipment of those listed.

Cannabutter Recipe: How to Make Cannabutter

Before beginning this recipe, it’s very important to remember to complete the decarboxylation process before adding your cannabis to the butter. If you skip this step, your cannabutter will only be a fraction as potent as it would be after achieving decarboxylation. Do not skip this step.

Ingredients and Cooking Tools

  • ¼ ounce of cannabis buds, finely ground with stems and seeds (if any) removed
  • 1 quart water
  • ½ cup (one stick) of unsalted butter
  • One cookie sheet
  • One large saucepan
  • Spoon
  • Metal strainer (you may also use a cheese cloth for straining)
  • Wooden ladle
  • Container with a tight-fitting lid (for storage)

First, bake your cannabis sample on a cookie sheet at 250°F/120°C for 30 to 60 minutes. This will complete the decarboxylation process and give the ground cannabis a nutty, roasted flavor.

Next, melt the butter in the saucepan filled with water on low heat, stirring occasionally. Once the butter has completely melted, start stirring in your ground cannabis, a little bit at a time. Stir well after each addition.

Once you have added all of the cannabis, stir to incorporate all of the grounds. Simmer the cannabutter on low heat, stirring frequently. After about 2 to 3 hours, you should start to see small foamy bubbles forming on the surface of the cannabutter.

Remove from heat and strain the cannabutter through the metal strainer or cheese cloth into your storage container. Use a spoon to press the melted butter through the strainer while trapping all of the ground cannabis grains. Let cool in fridge for up to 1 hour and remove excess water.

When finished, your cannabutter should have a slightly greenish tint. You are ready to start creating your favorite cannabis-infused recipes! If you successfully achieved decarboxylation during the initial roasting process, your cannabutter should be potent and produce the effects you’d expect from premade edibles found at a dispensary.

You can store your cannabutter the same way you would store regular butter. You can freeze it for up to six months or keep it in the refrigerator for up to two weeks.

Calculating the Potency of Your Cannabutter

You may be wondering how to tell how potent your cannabutter is before consuming it. It’s wise to have some idea of how to judge the strength so you don’t inadvertently make something too potent that leaves you “couch-locked.” And on the other hand, you want to ensure your cannabutter is potent enough to be noticeable in your infused foods.

It’s important to take note if the cannabis you purchased from your medical marijuana dispensary has a THC or CBD percentage listed on the package. If so, you can use that percentage as a baseline to calculate the potency of your cannabutter. As a rough guideline, cannabutter extracts about 60 percent of the psychoactive compounds (cannabinoids) found in marijuana.


Making cannamilk is easier than cannabutter:

  • Pour a half gallon of milk into a pot and heat to simmering – do not let it boil!
  • Add ½ ounce finely ground cannabis and let simmer for a half hour, stirring gently.
  • Strain through a doubled cheesecloth into an airtight container, let cool, cover and refrigerate for use.

Mini Canna-Pancakes

This recipe takes about 15 minutes to make and makes about 40 mini pancakes.


  • 1½ cups flour
  • 1 tablespoon baking powder
  • ¼ teaspoon salt
  • 2 tablespoons sugar
  • 1¼ cups milk
  • 2 tablespoons melted butter
  • 1–2 tablespoons cannabutter *, melted and cooled
  • 1 egg, lightly beaten
  • 1 banana, sliced (optional)
  • ½ cup raspberries (optional)
  • Syrup (optional)
  • 2 teaspoons canola oil (for use in pan or griddle)
Recipes with cannabutter


  • In a medium bowl combine the dry ingredients. In another bowl whisk together the milk, melted butters, and egg.
  • Gently pour the milk mixture into the dry; mixing until dry ingredients are moistened—some lumps are fine.
  • Heat a pan or griddle with the canola oil to medium. Using a tablespoon, pour the batter onto the pan. You can do a few at the same time; just allow room to use a spatula to flip the pancakes. The pancakes will bubble and tiny holes will form on the top of the pancake, signaling time to flip to the other side. Pancakes should take about two minutes per side.
  • Pile the pancakes on a platter and top with sliced banana and berries and a drizzle of syrup.

* The amount of cannabutter used depends on the strength of the THC and the potency you desire. Start with the small portion of a serving and wait one to two hours to make an informed decision on whether to consume more.

Eggs Benedict with Hollandaze Sauce

How about eggs benedict with an infused hollandaise sauce? This is one of my favorites and will make Sunday brunch an experience to remember! It takes approximately 20 minutes to make and makes two servings.

Ingredients for Hollandaze Sauce

  • 3 large egg yolks
  • 1 Tbsp fresh lemon juice
  • 1- 2 Tbsp cannabutter *, melted and warm
  • ⅓ cup unsalted butter, melted and warm
  • ⅛ tsp cayenne pepper
  • Salt and pepper to taste

Ingredients for Eggs Benedict

  • 2 English muffins, halved and toasted
  • 4 pieces of bacon, ham, or veggie of your choice
  • 1 Tbsp white vinegar
  • 1 Tbsp Kosher salt
  • 4 eggs
  • 1 ½ Tbsp chives, chopped (optional)
Recipes with cannabutter


  • Heat the protein or veggie of your choice and place on English muffin halves.
  • Heat a small pot of water with the salt and vinegar to simmer. Place a ladle in the water and crack an egg into it and slide into the water. Repeat with other eggs.
  • After 3 minutes take eggs out of the water with a slotted spoon and gently place on top of the protein or veggie.
  • Blend egg yolk, lemon juice, salt, and pepper in a blender on high for 20 seconds. Then slowly start drizzling melted butter and cannabutter in a thin stream until fully incorporated.
  • Once the sauce is thick and creamy, gently spoon over eggs, garnish with chives if desired, and serve immediately. Enjoy!

* The amount of cannabutter used depends on the strength of the THC and the potency you desire. Start with the small portion of a serving and wait one to two hours to make an informed decision on whether to consume more.

Cannabis-Infused Spicy Chicken Wings

This recipe is even great for a party with its light and sweet cannabis flavor with just a touch of heat! This makes approximately 12-14 pieces of chicken and takes 45 minutes of prep time and 30 minutes in the oven


  • 1 cup flour
  • 2 tsp cayenne pepper
  • 1 tsp garlic powder
  • 1 tsp salt
  • Dash black pepper
  • Dash cumin
  • 1/4 cup butter
  • 1/4 cup Frank’s Original Hot Sauce
  • 1 pound chicken
  • 1/3 cup cannabutter *
  • 1/3 cup Frank’s Original Hot Sauce (separate from above)
Recipes with cannabutter


  • Preheat oven to 450 degrees.
  • Sift all dry ingredients together in large bowl.
  • Fold chicken into seasoning mix and place on a lightly greased pan.
  • Mix together 1/4 cup melted butter and 1/4 cup Frank’s Red Hot in small bowl and dunk pieces of chicken into the mixture before replacing on pan.
  • Place chicken in oven, turning over once after 15 minutes.
  • Mix together 1/3 cup melted cannabutter and 1/3 cup Frank’s Red Hot and heat – set aside.
  • Once chicken is out of the oven, drizzle cannabutter mixture over chicken wings.
  • Serve hot! Pairs well with bleu cheese or ranch dressing.

* The amount of cannabutter used depends on the strength of the THC and the potency you desire. Start with the small portion of a serving and wait one to two hours to make an informed decision on whether to consume more.

British Columbia

British Columbia

Overdose Prevention and Response in B.C.

Overdose Prevention and Response in B.C. provides information on how to respond to an overdose, tips to prevent an overdose, information on naloxone, and how the Province is responding to the crisis. 

Financial and Service Support

There are number of programs and services available to support individuals who are living with a disability or unable to afford certain medications required to treat a psychiatric condition. Services for People with Disabilities provides information on the various supports and services available, including information on Disability Assistance. Who We Cover outlines information on the Fair PharmaCare Plan which provides coverage for families with eligible prescription drugs and the Psychiatric Medications Plan (Plan G) for coverage of certain psychiatric medications for British Columbians of any age who demonstrate clinical and financial need.

Medical Services Plan of B.C.

The Medical Services Plan (MSP) insures medically-required services provided by physicians and supplementary health care practitioners, and diagnostic procedures. Learn about eligibility and enrolment, benefits, and more.

Child & Teen Mental Health

Child & Teen Mental Health provides an overview of the services and resources available to families from the Ministry of Children and Family Development and a number of partner service providers. Information is available on children and youth mental health intake in British Columbia, suicide prevention, youth forensic psychiatric services, and a number of feature programs focused on children and teens. If you are looking for services or resources in your community, we suggest you use the online directory where you can search by a keyword and your city or review the resources listed in Children and Youth.


BC Housing develops, manages and administers a wide range of subsidized housing options across the province. Their mission is to make a positive difference in communities through safe, affordable, and quality housing. Visit their website for information about community programs and services, subsidized housing, homelessness services, housing with support (e.g. the addiction recovery program, supportive housing), women fleeing violence, and more.

British Columbia

Healthy Minds, Healthy People

Healthy Minds, Healthy People: A Ten-Year Plan to Address Mental Health and Substance Use in British Columbia is about transforming our approach to mental health and substance use, and working together to support lifelong mental wellbeing of all British Columbians. Visit Healthy Minds, Healthy People to review the strategy, an outline of the goals, progress and partners involved in achieving the outcomes of the strategy.

Mental Health Act

British Columbia’s Mental Health Act has important implications for individuals requiring involuntary treatment or receiving voluntary treatment under the act, their families and service providers. Visit Mental Health Act for access to the Act and supporting documentation such as the Guide to the Mental Health Act, the Mental Health Review Board, Facilities Designated under the Mental Health Act, and Mental Health Act Forms.

Mental Health and Substance Use Information and Publications

Mental Health and Substance Use Information and Publications provides a quick, alphabetical index of a number of the information resources, guidelines, strategy documents, and toolkits related to substance use and mental health matters created by B.C. Government and our service partners.

Organizations Supporting Mental Health and Substance Use in B.C.

Organizations Supporting Mental Health and Substance Use in B.C. provides an index of a number of the organizations in British Columbia or Canada who provide support, resources or services for mental health and substance use. If you are looking for a service or resource in your community, we suggest you use the online directory where you can search by a keyword and your city rather than the index of organizations.

British Columbia


British Columbia is Canada’s westernmost province, bordered by the Alaskan Panhandle and the Yukon and Northwest Territories to the north, and by Washington, Idaho, and Montana to the south. Alberta lies to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Ten mountain ranges push west from the Canadian Rockies, and ancient temperate rainforests hug the coast. In between are rolling grasslands, lush valleys, tens of thousands of lakes, glacier-fed rivers, and even semi-arid desert.

British Columbia’s national and provincial parks protect a wide wilderness which represents the best natural features and diverse environments of the province.  Approximately 14% of BC’s land base in protected, and all of this wild nature supports wildlife in abundance, on land and in the sea.

Travel Tips

Airport Tax

Vancouver Airport charges passengers an Airport Improvement Fee.

The fee is CAD$5 for passengers to British Columbia and Yukon destinations, CAD$10 for other North American destinations, and CAD$15 for destinations outside North America.

The Airport Improvement Fee can be paid at the automatic ticket machines or the manned pay booths located near the security check. Cash (Canadian or American), major credit cards and Canadian debit cards are accepted for payment. The fee can also be pre-paid with your airline ticket at some travel agents.

Passengers are not permitted to enter the flight departures areas beyond the security check without an Airport Improvement Fee sticker.

Airport tax does not apply to passengers with connecting flights on the same calendar day.

Disabled Travellers

All Canadian carriers under federal jurisdiction such as airlines, railways and ferries are obliged to ensure that travellers with disabilities do not encounter “undue obstacles” while using their services. Public buildings have special facilities such as ramps, properly equipped washrooms and automatic doors. In recent years, owners of many commercial buildings have put similar facilities in place as well. By law, there are public parking places at all public buildings and shopping malls for the vehicles of persons with impaired mobility. These vehicles are required to display a disability sign in the vehicle window.

Wheelchair accessibility information can be obtained from:

Canadian Paraplegic Association
780 S.W. Marine Drive
Vancouver, BC V6P 5Y7
Tel: 604-324-3611
Fax: 604-326-1227

Hearing and Speech Impairment Services are available for persons with hearing and speech impairments by contacting:

Western Institute for Deaf and Hard of Hearing
2125 West 7th Avenue
Vancouver, BC V9K 1X9
Tel: 604-736-7391 (voice)
Tel: 604-736-2527 (TTY)

Tourist Alerts

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are frequently requested to communicate urgent messages to people on vacation. Many tourist facilities co-operate with RCMP, so if you see your name listed in newspapers, at Visitor Centres or hear it on a radio or TV, please phone the number provided.


Throughout British Columbia an Approved Accommodation sign is awarded to tourist accommodations that have met Tourism British Columbia’s standards of courtesy, comfort and cleanliness. Qualifying establishments display a white Approved Accommodation sign.

Wherever and whenever you travel, especially during peak season, it is best to book in advance. Each establishment generally requires the equivalent of the daily rate to hold the reservation. When reserving accommodation, it is recommended that you ask for the establishment’s cancellation and refund policy.

Hotels, motels and other lodgings are required to list room rates on a rate card, conspicuously displayed in each room. Campground/RV site rates and policy notices must be posted conspicuously in the registration area. Visitors should contact the establishment directly to verify all quoted rate details.

Accommodation bookings are subject to a total tax of 16.15% – being 5% GST (Goods and Services Tax), 7% PST (Provincial Sales Tax), and 4.15% HRT (Hotel Room Tax).

Complaints about an accommodation facility should first be addressed with the management of the property. If not resolved, the matter can be referred to:

Manager of Accommodations Program
Tourism British Columbia
P.O Box 9830
Stn. Prov Govt
Victoria, BC
V8W 9W5

Wax vs Oil: Which One’s Better and How they are Different

Wax vs Oil

Now that you’ve got the taste of weed, do you want to up your game and try something more special? Ganja is amazing, period. But, cannabis concentrates? They are completely on another level! Of all the concentrates, marijuana wax and oil are the most popular, and this article will help you understand the difference between wax vs oil. Thrive Leads Shortcode could not be rendered, please check it in Thrive Leads Section!

What are Concentrates?

A cannabis concentrate, as the name suggests, is the concentrated form of the cannabis plant’s compounds such as CBD and THC.

There are several types of concentrates available today, including Shatter, Budder, Wax, Sauce, Rosin, 701, Honey Oil, etc., and any of them can knock you out.

Cannabis concentrates are primarily used to derive a higher potency compared to other forms of marijuana.

Cannabis concentrates contain high amounts of THC that is beneficial for several medical purposes, and extracts like CBD oil can also help relieve pain.

What is Wax?

Wax vs Oil

The term “Wax” can be used to describe any marijuana concentrate that is soft and semi-solid at room temperatures.

It resembles wax in texture and is also crumbly at times, but it’s nothing but the soft oil that loses its transparency during the process of extraction.

As the cannabis molecules are agitated, they crystallize and turn opaque.

All the goodness of the plant that might otherwise be lost while simply smoking a bud is extracted into the form of a concentrate for ease of use.

Remember that the THC levels in cannabis wax can range from a whopping 40 to 99.99% compared to 15-20% found in traditional buds, so go slow because you really don’t want to rush into it and get messed up.

What is Cannabis Oil?

Wax vs Oil

Just like wax, cannabis oil also contains several cannabinoids and is very potent.

It is dark and viscous in texture and is created because it gives the maker the ability to control the percentage of CBD or THC.

If a high level of THC that produces psychoactive effects is not appealing to you, you can opt for cannabis oil containing high concentrations of CBD – a non-psychoactive cannabinoid containing several medical benefits.

Is there a difference between a concentrate and an extract?

You may have heard the terms concentrate and extract used interchangeably, but there is a subtle difference between the two. Extracts are a specific type of concentrate made using a solvent. So, while all extracts are concentrates, not all concentrates are extracts. 

For example, vanilla extract is produced by using alcohol as a solvent to pull out the desired flavor component, vanillin, from vanilla bean pods. Alcohol may also be used to make a cannabis extract, as is in the case with Rick Simpson Oil (RSO). But other solvents may be deployed as well, like butane for Butane Hash Oil (BHO) and supercritical CO2 for cannabis wax extracts.

Concentrates made without the use of solvents are produced using mechanical or physical means to remove and gather trichomes. Rosin, dry sift, and kief are all examples of concentrates made without the use of solvents.

Since extracts and concentrates come in a variety of textures, you always can’t tell them apart just by looking at them. 



Wax can come in a soft, semi-solid form as the name suggests, but it can also come in solid forms as well. The types of wax that go by names like shatter, crumble, or honeycomb are brittle solids that will nonetheless melt and vaporize when exposed to high enough temperatures. Wax extracts that have names like sap, live resin, or budder are softer, more pliable substances, exactly what you would expect from a substance called wax.


 Oil is, of course, a liquid that comes in various viscosity levels, some oils are thin and others are denser, but they are all ultimately liquids.



Wax is easily the more intense of the two substances because of the extraction method used to create it. When wax is extracted from the cannabis plant, the substance created has a very high concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes, in other words, it is highly potent and very intense and can have THC concentrations of up to 90%.


By contrast, the production methods used to create oil end up diluting it somewhat so that the concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes are not quite as high. That is because cannabis oil is usually cut with other oils during the production process in order to attain its fluidic consistency.



As stated earlier, the type of wax depends on a lot of different factors, from the strain of marijuana used to the way that it is harvested to any special tweaks made during the manufacturing process. Here are some of the most common types of wax extracts.

  • Shatter
  • Budder
  • Live Resin
  • Crumble
  • Wax
  • Rosin
  • Pull-and-Snap
  • Honeycomb


There are different types of oil as well and they vary based on the type of extraction method used in the process.

  • CBD Oil
  • THC Oil

Why Use Wax or Oil in the First place?

Perhaps you love buds and don’t understand the hullabaloo around waxes and oils.

Also, buds are cheap, but concentrates are not, so why do it?

While smoking cannabis buds is great, cannabis concentrates are becoming more popular due to the potency.

You simply can’t expect high levels of THC or CBD in buds, but you can get even 90% pure THC with oil or wax, making it a bargain even if you’re paying more.

A little wax or oil goes a long way, and there’s no wastage, but the same isn’t true when it comes to smoking cannabis flowers.

Regardless of what the ignorant may think of marijuana, concentrates are used by patients suffering from PTSD, Migraine, Asthma, Cancer, and a host of other conditions.  

The resin found on the plant contains incredible medicinal properties that manifold when combined with terpenes.

If you’re only smoking buds, you’re wasting the resin on the plant, but when it’s extracted, you get all the possible medicinal benefits.

Cancer patients need a higher dose to gain relief from their ailments, and that’s why oil and wax are slowly increasing in popularity day by day.

Smoking or consuming extracts that contain pure THC/CBD, irritants and sugar is more desirable because you get high faster and the smoke is cleaner, and your lungs will also thank you.


When it comes to wax vs oil, it will mainly be personal preference.

Oils are easier to smoke with pens and joints, while wax is going to be better for dab rigs.